Sanitary equipment

Sanitary equipment refers to a collection of sanitary appliances installed in places like bathrooms, toilets, and the kitchen to collect and discharge waste. In its simplest form, it refers to water closet bowls, urinals, bidets, washbasins, and cisterns. Traditionally, sanitary equipment is manufactured from porcelain, a ceramic material made from clay and coated with enamel. However, porcelain or China clean equipment are not the only types in the market, as there are others made from materials like metals, glass, acrylic, etc.

Sanitary equipment, also called sanitary wares, also includes other installations like the discharge pipes, baths, showers, drinking fountain, etc. It also includes appliances that are not connected to a drain (for example, waterless urinal) or water supply (for example, composting toilet). They are divided into two classes:

Soil Appliances

Soil Appliances remove different solid or liquid human waste materials. Examples are;

  • Water closets

Water closets essentially collect and discharge excretory matter and comprise a bowl to receive the excreta, a trap, and a flushing apparatus. Types of water closets include; the universal, squatting, siphonic, and wash-down water closets.

  • Bidets

A bidet is an ablution appliance used to clean excretory organs with water for personnel hygiene. It can either be pedestal type or wall hung. Cold and hot water supplied through a mixer is released from a spray installed over sanitary ware. The outlet is connected to the soil pipe in a system.

  • Urinal

 It is an appliance for urination connected to a soil pipe through a suitable trap. Urinals should have the provision of a flushing apparatus. The urinal types are; bowl type (flat or angle back), Slab type, Stall type, Squatting plate type, Waterless urinal, etc.

  • Slop sink

It is a sizeable square-shaped sink found in the hospital to dispose of excreta and other waste and wash urine bottles and bedpans. It usually has a flushing mechanism.

  • Wastewater appliances

Wastewater appliances primarily supply and remove water once it has been used. Examples include:

  • Washbasin

This appliance has a one-piece construction with a water supply apparatus and should preferably have soap holding recess.

  • Wash-trough

It is similar in function to a washbasin but can be used simultaneously by several persons.

  • Sink

A sink is usually found in a kitchen or laboratory and is used to clean utensils/ apparatus. It also serves as a source of water for general usage. It usually has a one-piece construction, with a circular waste hole into which the sink drains interiors.

  • Bathtub

It is usually made of cast iron, enamelled steel, gel-coated glass fibre, or reinforced plastic. It may even cast in situ. It is made to be watertight and easy to get in and out of.

  • Drinking fountain

It refers to a bowl built with a push-button tap and a water bubbler or a tap that has a swan-neck outlet.

Sanitary equipment is generally built to have a durable, smooth, and non-absorbent surface. They are typically manufactured with non-corroding material, such as porcelain, stainless steel, enamelled cast iron, glass, or specially treated plastic.